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以太坊是什么?

作者:汪晓明

原文链接:http://www.8btc.com/ethereum-part-1

以太坊是什么?

以太坊是一个全新开放的区块链平台,它允许任何人在平台中建立和使用通过区块链技术运行的去中心化应用。就像比特币一样,以太坊不受任何人控制,也不归任何人所有——它是一个开放源代码项目,由全球范围内的很多人共同创建。和比特币协议有所不同的是,以太坊的设计十分灵活,极具适应性。在以太坊平台上创立新的应用十分简便,随着Homestead的发布,任何人都可以安全地使用该平台上的应用。

以太坊是什么?

 

下一代区块链

 

区块链技术是比特币的底层技术,这一技术第一次被描述是在中本聪2008年发表的白皮书“比特币:点对点电子现金系统”中。区块链技术更多的一般性用途在原书中已经有所讨论,但直到几年后,区块链技术才作为通用术语出现。一个区块链是一个分布式计算架构,里面的每个网络节点执行并记录相同的交易,交易被分组为区块。一次只能增加一个区块,每个区块有一个数学证明来保证新的区块与之前的区块保持先后顺序。这样一来,区块链的“分布式数据库”就能和整个网络保持一致。个体用户与总账的互动(交易)受到安全的密码保护。由数学执行并编码到协议中的经济激励因素刺激着维持和验证网络的节点。

在比特币中,分布式数据库被设想为一个账户余额表,一个总账,交易就是通过比特币的转移以实现个体之间无需信任基础的金融活动。但是随着比特币吸引了越来越多开发者和技术专家的注意,新的项目开始将比特币网络用于有价代币转移之外的其他用途。其中很多都采用了“代币”的形式——以原始比特币协议为基础,增加了新的特征或功能,采用各自加密货币的独立区块链。在2013年末,以太坊的发明者Vitalik Buterin建议能够通过程序重组来运行任意复杂运算的单个区块链应该包含其他的程序。

2014年,以太坊的创始人Vitalik Buterin, Gavin Wood和Jeffrey Wilcke开始研究新一代区块链,试图实现一个总体上完全无需信任基础的智能合约平台。

 

以太坊虚拟机

 

以太坊是可编程的区块链。它并不是给用户一系列预先设定好的操作(例如比特币交易),而是允许用户按照自己的意愿创建复杂的操作。这样一来,它就可以作为多种类型去中心化区块链应用的平台,包括加密货币在内但并不仅限于此。

以太坊狭义上是指一系列定义去中心化应用平台的协议,它的核心是以太坊虚拟机(“EVM”),可以执行任意复杂算法的编码。在计算机科学术语中,以太坊是“图灵完备的”。开发者能够使用现有的JavaScript和Python等语言为模型的其他友好的编程语言,创建出在以太坊模拟机上运行的应用。

和其他区块链一样,以太坊也有一个点对点网络协议。以太坊区块链数据库由众多连接到网络的节点来维护和更新。每个网络节点都运行着以太坊模拟机并执行相同的指令。因此,人们有时形象地称以太坊为“世界电脑”。

这个贯穿整个以太坊网络的大规模并行运算并不是为了使运算更高效。实际上,这个过程使得在以太坊上的运算比在传统“电脑”上更慢更昂贵。然而,每个以太坊节点都运行着以太坊虚拟机是为了保持整个区块链的一致性。去中心化的一致使以太坊有极高的故障容错性,保证零停机,而且可以使存储在区块链上的数据保持永远不变且抗审查。

以太坊平台本身没有特点,没有价值性。和编程语言相似,它由企业家和开发者决定其用途。不过很明显,某些应用类型较之其他更能从以太坊的功能中获益。以太坊尤其适合那些在点与点之间自动进行直接交互或者跨网络促进小组协调活动的应用。例如,协调点对点市场的应用,或是复杂财务合同的自动化。比特币使个体能够不借助金融机构、银行或政府等其他中介来进行货币交换。以太坊的影响可能更为深远。理论上,任何复杂的金融活动或交易都能在以太坊上用编码自动且可靠地进行。除金融类应用外,任何对信任、安全和持久性要求较高的应用场景——比如资产注册、投票、管理和物联网——都会大规模地受到以太坊平台影响。

 

以太坊如何工作?

 

以太坊合并了很多对比特币用户来说十分熟悉的特征和技术,同时自己也进行了很多修正和创新。比特币区块链纯粹是一个关于交易的列表,而以太坊的基础单元是账户。以太坊区块链跟踪每个账户的状态,所有以太坊区块链上的状态转换都是账户之间价值和信息的转移。账户分为两类:

 

  1. 外有账户(EOA),由私人密码控制
  2. 合同账户,由它们的合同编码控制,只能由外有账户“激活”

对于大部分用户来说,两者基本的区别在于外有账户是由人类用户掌控——因为他们能够控制私钥,进而控制外有账户。而合同账户则是由内部编码管控。如果他们是被人类用户“控制”的,那也是因为程序设定它们被具有特定地址的外有账户控制,进而被持有私钥控制外有账户的人控制着。“智能合约”这个流行的术语指的是在合同账户中编码——交易被发送给该账户时所运行的程序。用户可以通过在区块链中部署编码来创建新的合约。

只有当外有账户发出指令时,合同账户才会执行相应的操作。所以合约账户不可能自发地执行诸如任意数码生成或应用程序界面调用等操作–只有受外有账户提示时,它才会做这些事。这是因为以太坊要求节点能够与运算结果保持一致,这就要求保证严格确定执行。

和比特币一样,以太坊用户必须向网络支付少量交易费用。这可以使以太坊区块链免受无关紧要或恶意的运算任务干扰,比如分布式拒绝服务(DDoS)攻击或无限循环 。交易的发送者必须在激活的“程序”每一步付款,包括运算和记忆储存。费用通过以太坊自有的有价代币,以太币的形式支付。

交易费用由节点收集,节点使网络生效。这些“矿工”就是以太坊网络中收集、传播、确认和执行交易的节点。矿工们将交易分组——包括许多以太坊区块链中账户“状态”的更新——分成的组被称为“区块”,矿工们会互相竞争,以使他们的区块可以添加到下一个区块链上。矿工们每挖到一个成功的区块就会得到以太币奖励。这就为人们带来了经济激励,促使人们为以太坊网络贡献硬件和电力。

和比特币网络一样,矿工们有解决复杂数学问题的任务以便成功地“挖”到区块。这被称为“工作量证明”。一个运算问题,如果在算法上解决,比验证解决方法需要更多数量级的资源,那么它就是工作证明的极佳选择。为防止比特币网络中已经发生的,专门硬件(例如特定用途集成电路)造成的中心化现象,以太坊选择了难以存储的运算问题。如果问题需要存储器和CPU,事实上理想的硬件是普通的电脑。这就使以太坊的工作量证明具有抗特定用途集成电路性,和比特币这种由专门硬件控制挖矿的区块链相比,能够带来更加去中心化的安全分布。

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  1. #1

    Yodse ecosystem overview

    Problem Issues

    Monitoring of multi-billion market of industrial products group and rapidly growing e-commerce market has revealed the lack of bridge between an end- customer and a manufacturer, that will enable direct communication between them, promoting loyalty and client- oriented approach.

    Yodse’s main purposes.

    The platform yodse aims to become the largest Internet ecosystem for the most convenient, rapid and profitable interaction of enterprises in the field of production of industrial product groups in the markets of Russia, CIS, South-East Asia, and later in Europe and the United States. This global, decentralized and transparent B2B / B2C trading platform has all the advantages of blockchain technology and thus provides manufacturers with the most convenient communication with their wholesalers and retail buyers. The scale, high-tech products and convenient user-friendly tools within the ecosystem will allow small and medium-sized businesses to achieve better results and gain practical benefit.

    Challenges that yodse ecosystem solves

    yodse project is aimed at solving a number of problems related to direct, convenient, rapid and profitable “manufacturer-consumer” interaction. The transparent ecosystem yodse focuses on the protection consumers from losses, connected with the lack of guarantees from manufacturers and abundance of poor-quality goods. By establishing communication mechanisms, buyers will be provided with technical support, and manufacturers will receive quality feedback. The platform will reduce the delivery time and enable consumers to purchase goods without intermediaries. Excessive costs of manufacturers for outdated marketing technologies and high fees of goods placement on existing e-commerce platforms will become history. The YODSE system offers its users low fees and creates conditions for easy access of small businesses to e-commerce and international markets.

    Advantages of using ecosystem (platform) yodse for manufacturers

    The yodse electronic platform and its tools allow businesses, operating in the production of industrial product groups to find their retail and wholesale customers and to provide direct sales without intermediaries. The system helps to set up a mechanism for communication with clients, enhance the transparency of transactions, perform transparent management and control in the process of delivery and payments, and expand the customer base, maximize the volume of goods turnover and net profit. In addition, owing to the global system based on the blockchain technology, small and medium-sized businesses will be able to solve the problems of entering new promising markets, as well as significantly improve the competitiveness of manufactured industrial products.
    Advantages of using ecosystem (platform) yodse for consumers

    Yodse project gives huge advantages for users while searching and purchasing industrial products group, motor vehicles, production, road construction, mining and agricultural machinery, material handling equipment, rigging arrangement, turbines, equipment for ventilation and air conditioning, pumps, compressors, bearings and others. Direct prices from manufacturer without intermediaries allow to maximize profit and users feedbacks and quality technical support from manufacturers will enable consumers to learn more about the product and make sure of its quality.

    Use of crypto-currencies and traditional forms of payment within the system.
    Using the platform, consumer can choose from a wide range of necessary industrial products from domestic or foreign manufacturers, for which it will be possible to pay with BTC / ETH / XPR crypto-currencies, yodse tokens as well as national currencies. As the number of users of the platform increase, the number of transactions made in crypto-currencies will increase significantly, however in the countries where the turnover of crypto-currency fall under the restrictive regulation, traditional currencies will be used. With regard to the use of yodse tokens, these elements of the ecosystem, based on the cryptographic algorithm based on Blockchain technology, will help increase user loyalty and give owners the opportunity to perform transparent and conflict-free operations, confirmed by smart contracts, pay for platform services, make token loans, become a member of the referral program and receive revenue from sales. In this case, yodse tokens are not securities, however as the number of users and transactions on the platform grow, the tokens value will increase as well.
    Why this particular direct sales platform will be the most promising and highly- demanded

    yodse global platform is a unique platform and has a number of advantages that distinguish it from other platforms. The most important advantage of this platform is transparency of transactions owing to blockchain technology and possibility to conduct transactions with crypto currencies. In addition, users will receive quality In continuous 24/7 support, available product localization, a transparent feedback system, prices from manufacturers, so that they will be able to derive maximum benefit from the purchase of quality products.

    YODSE ecosystem growth prospects
    Benefits for users from yodse ecosystem scaling.

    Joining of a number of manufacturers of industrial groups of goods to the yodse system will make it possible to conclude a lot of mutually beneficial, multimillion contracts. As the yodse platform dynamically develops and scales, there will be a gradual increase in the number of offices being opened in many regions in order to provide quality and continuous technical support to users in other countries and maintain the brand. The scaling of ecosystem will enhance the frequency of use of the platform in a number of countries, which will increase the number of users, thereby facilitating the establishment of export-import transactions between countries and, as a result, increase sales volumes of manufacturers. Manufacturers, who sign in earlier than others, will take the advantages of being pioneers in new markets.
    Explorer it! –

    Which countries, markets, continents will cover YODSE ecosystem?

    The expansion of the yodse ecosystem geography is planned to begin in the markets of Eastern Europe and the countries of the Customs Union (Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, etc.), which are leaders in the production and procurement of industrial groups of goods. In the future, creators of the platform plan to expand the ecosystem and enter overseas markets, expanding the scope of their activities to the countries of the Asian region, Africa, Latin America. In the mid-term perspective yodse platform plans to cover the market of Europe, USA and Australia.

    Angela Pirs2年前 (2018-05-11)回复